Collateral leptomeningeal arteries: where are the anastomosis?

Key point: More than 300 years ago, Willis T. characterized the arterial ring at the base of the brain and began debate concerning whether the circle functions primarily as a flow equalizer or as an anastomosis. Heubner O., in 1874, was the first to produce a well-documented study demonstrating the existence of LMA; he was trying to Read more about Collateral leptomeningeal arteries: where are the anastomosis?[…]

The Role of Catheter Angiography in the Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Vasculitis

Key points: The role of angiography in the diagnosis of primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) emerged in the mid-1960, when were recognized recurring but not specific angiographic pattens in the inflammatory conditions of the CNS. However the comprehension of the role of DSA in this cases was made difficult by the lack of a Read more about The Role of Catheter Angiography in the Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Vasculitis[…]

Intracranial Vessel Wall MRI: Principles and Expert Consensus Recommendations of the American Society of Neuroradiology

Key points: Conventional techniques for imaging the intracranial arteries can fail to fully characterize disease that resides within the vessel wall. For this reason, there is growing interest in direct visualization of the vessel wall with high-resolution intracranial vessel wall MR imaging (VW-MR imaging). The principal technical requirements for intracranial VW-MR imaging are the following: Clinical Read more about Intracranial Vessel Wall MRI: Principles and Expert Consensus Recommendations of the American Society of Neuroradiology[…]